How we teach Phonics & Reading

At Sandy Hill Academy we use a synthetic phonics programme to teach reading called 'Letters and Sounds.’ This programme teaches phonics and reading skills through six distinct phases. Children are taught to identify sounds in spoken words, recognise the common spelling of each phoneme, to blend phonemes into sounds for reading and how to segment words into phonemes for spellings.
 
PHASE 1
 
Phase 1 is designed to teach preschool children to listen attentively, to enlarge their vocabulary and to speak confidently. This phase also aims to support children to discriminate phonemes and reproduce audibly the phonemes they hear through-

•          Environmental sounds

•          Instrumental sounds

•          Body percussion

•          Rhythm and rhyme

•          Alliteration

•          Voice sounds

•          Oral blending and segmenting

 

PHASE 2

Phase 2 is the start of systematic phonic work. Children begin to understand the grapheme- phoneme correspondence. They will focus on their understanding of how words are constructed from phonemes and that phonemes are represented by graphemes. Children then begin to blend for reading. They start with simple VC (vowel consonant) words e.g. ‘at,’ ‘it,’ ‘is’ and then move on to CVC (consonant vowel consonant) words e.g. dog, cat, man

  •          By the end of phase 2, the children should know 24 sounds...

s

a

t

p

i

n

m

d

g

o

c

k

ck

e

u

r

h

b

f

ff

l

ll

ss

 

and be able to read 5 tricky words…

 

the

to

I

no

g

They should be able to orally blend cvc words e.g. when you sound out c-a-t, they can tell you the word is cat, and also orally segment cvc words e.g. when you say mum, they can pick out the sounds m-u-m.

 

PHASE 3

Phase 3 builds on Phase 2. It completes the teaching of the alphabet and children move onto sounds represented by more than 1 letter (including some where the same letters can make different sounds e.g. oo– book, loop)...

DIGRAPHS – 2 letters that make 1 sound e.g. ll    ss   zz   oa    ai

TRIGRAPHS – 3 letters that make 1 sound e.g. igh    air

j

v

w

x

y

z

zz

qu

ch

sh

th

ng

ai

ee

igh

oa

oo

ar

or

ur

ow

oi

ear

air

ure

er

ur

 

and 12 more tricky words to read...

he

she

we

me

be

was

my

you

her

they

all

are

They should now, also, be able to spell the 5 tricky words from phase 2.

 

PHASE 4

Phase 4 does not introduce any new graphemes. The main aim of this phase is to consolidate the children's knowledge and to help them learn to read and spell words which have adjacent consonants, such as trap, string and milk.These can be sounded out but recognising them quickly makes for a stronger reader.

14 more tricky words are added too…

some

come

one

said

do

so

were

when

have

there

out

like

little

what

 The children should now be able to write the Phase 3 words.

 

PHASE 5

Phase 5, Children will learn more graphemes and phonemes. For example, they already know ‘ai’ as in ‘rain’ but now they will be introduced to ‘ay’ as in ‘day’ and ‘a-e’ as in ‘make.’ Alternative pronunciations for graphemes will also be introduced, e.g. ‘ea’ in ‘tea,’ ‘head’ and ‘break.’

ay

ou

ie

ea

oy

ir

ue

aw

wh

ph

ew

oe

au

ey

a-e

e-e

i-e

o-e

u-e

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

They should also be able to read and write the ‘first 100 high frequency words‘

the

and

a

to

said

in

he

I

of

it

was

you

they

on

she

is

for

at

his

but

that

with

all

we

can

are

up

had

my

her

what

there

out

this

have

went

be

like

some

so

not

then

were

go

little

as

no

mum

one

them

do

me

down

dad

big

when

it’s

see

looked

very

look

don’t

come

will

into

back

from

children

him

Mr

get

just

now

came

oh

about

got

their

people

your

put

could

house

old

too

by

day

made

time

I’m

if

help

Mrs

called

here

off

asked

saw

make

an

By the end of Year 1, the children should be confidently reading all of these words and writing them accurately too.

 

PHASE 6

In Phase 6, the focus is on learning spelling rules for word endings or suffixes. They learn how words change when you add certain letters. There are 12 different suffixes taught: 

-s

-es

-ing

-ed

-er

-est

-y

-en

-ful

-ly

-ment

-ness

The children are also expected to be able to read and write the ‘next 200 common words’.